Ausgabe 2/2008, 14. Jahrgang
Transnationale Bildungsorganisationen in transnationalen Bildungsräumen: Begriffsdefinitionen und Vorschlag für eine Typologie
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Besides governmental organisations (e.g. education ministries) and international organisations (e.g. UNESCO) transnational organisations have appeared worldwide as a rather new set of actors in what is here called ‘transnational educational spaces’: Migrants who combine multiple cross border educa-tional careers instead of a unidirectional integration into the education system of their new host coun-try create transnational educational spaces. Non-state actors in higher education offering programmes or branch campuses overseas, profit-seeking transnational educational firms selling tutoring, teaching and certificates on the global market, and transnational enterprises creating their own corporate uni-versities or academies for teaching and capacity building of their personnel, – all of them may be ana-lysed as actors in ‘transnational educational spaces’. Likewise international schools teaching world-wide according to non-national curricula and certificates, and non-governmental advocacy organisa-tions preaching ‘Education for All’, may also be said to act in ‘transnational educational spaces’. Such phenomena may be discusses and researched from a vast variety of perspectives like biographies, lifestyles, attitudes, achievement, networks or mobility patterns. In this article the stress is on organizations operating in these fields, because transnational educational organizations compete and interact with national and international ones, and thus pose a challenge to the taken-for-granted concept of national education systems. After clarifying the concept of transnational educational spaces the article will therefore focus especially on organizations acting in these fields, which may be identi-fied as genuinely educational organizations, and offer a typology which might be useful for further research.