Erzählen in zwei Sprachen
Diskursanalytische Untersuchungen von Erzählungen auf Deutsch und Französisch
2006, Mehrsprachigkeit / Multilingualism, Band 18, 312 Seiten, E-Book (PDF), 26,90 €, ISBN 978-3-8309-6576-3
Das Buch eignet sich u.a. gut als Einstieg in die funktional-pragmatische Diskursanalyse, da die begrifflichen Grundlagen dieses handlungstheoretischen Ansatzes in einfacher Form erklärt und praktisch auf die transkribierten Alltagserzählungen in der Mutter- und Fremd- bzw. Zweitsprache angewendet werden. Als grundlegender Ertrag der empirischen Analysen wird eine umfassende "Typologie alltäglichen Erzählens" vorgeschlagen.
The following dissertation examines the differences between native and foreign respectively second language language narration. For this purpose 102 conversations with German and French speakers were recorded, transcribed and subsequently their discourse was analysed.
The theoretical background is provided by Functional Pragmatics and its terminology: categories of action space (Rehbein 1977), action patterns (Ehlich & Rehbein 1979 and 1986), structural types of knowledge (Ehlich & Rehbein 1977) and procedure (Ehlich 1986).
The categories of action space set the framework for action. According to Rehbein 1977 there is a difference between objective and subjective categories of action space. Objective aspects of action space include action field, interaction space, control field and the system of necessities, whereas subjective or mental categories of action space are represented by the mechanism of perception, evaluation, belief, motivation and knowledge space.
Action patterns are historically developed standards to solve social problems, i.e. requests, warnings, questions or — in an educational context — the action pattern of giving and solving tasks.
Procedures are the smallest units of linguistic-mental actions. According to Bühler 1934 and Ehlich 1986 we distinguish between appellative, deictic, expeditive, operative and expressive procedures. Examples for appellative procedures are the roots of nouns, adjectives and verbs. Deictic words are e.g. here, there, now, you, and I. Expeditive procedures include imperative, vocative and linguistic means of communication such as speech action supplements (e.g. well, isn’t it) which are added to assertions and interjections, e.g. ‚HM‘ as hearer signals (for speech action supplements see Rehbein 1979, for interjections see Ehlich 1986). Operative procedures are e.g. conjunctions or case morphems (for operative procedures ‚because‘ (German: ‚denn‘) and ‚since‘ (German: ‚da‘) see Redder 1990, for syntactical operative procedures see Hoffmann 2003). Particularly expressive are certain intonation structures (for expressive procedures see Redder 1994).
Narration requires a complex action pattern which consists of different partial patterns such as assertions (for narration patterns see Rehbein 1980). It can be divided into different stages, characterized among other things by the question whether the centre of attention, the origo of the speaker and the hearer belongs to the current speech situation or to the narrative space (for different deictic reference spaces see Ehlich 1979). Bühler 1934 already describes a concept ‚Deixis at phantasma‘, Rehbein 1989 distinguishes between an everyday and a fictional imaginative or narrative space, which — as a deictic reference space — is typical of narration.
Narration can be distinguished from reporting, illustrating, describing and other reconstructive forms of discourse by shifting the origo from an everyday imaginative space to a fictional imaginative space.
It has turned out that evaluation plays an essential part in realizing the central purpose of a narration e.g. creating a solidarity between speaker and hearer and thereby overcoming individual identities in favour of a ‚mental identity in action‘ (Rehbein 1984).
Evaluation can be verbalized in different ways. First of all it is necessary to distinguish between describing and commenting assertions, mainly performed by the speaker, whereas the hearer expresses evaluation or sympathy by interjections or exclamations which do not lead to a change in turns. On a procedural level we distinguish between ‚simple‘ procedures (Hoffmann 2003 calls them ‚atomic procedures‘) and others more complex in nature such as e.g. syntactic procedures (Hoffmann 2003). Some linguistic means typical of narration to verbalize evaluation are localized on a more complex level, and are called narrative procedures. They can either refer to the entire narration — those giving an insight into fatality or revealing elements — or they refer to individual elements in the chain of narration, as e.g. in participial chains (Redder 2003) and rapid discourse. On a micro-structural level — i.e. within one and same statement — we distinguish for complex procedures between aesthetic creative procedures, expressive syntactic procedures or ‚atomic‘ procedures (Hoffmann 2003) which can be e.g. expeditive or operative procedures to verbalize evaluation.
The evaluation structure which is verbalized by different linguistic means constituates the various types of narrative structure. We distinguish between narrations within a problem-orientated and those belonging to an entertaining homileïc discourse. Narrations about conflicts between the participants play an important part in problem-orientated conversations. These are e.g. stories about excusing or justifying oneself, stories about victory and suffering with their respective subtypes: stories of deceit, mocking and where people have problems due to the fact that they can not express themselves adequately. Strange occurences (Rebein 1980) are subjects of classification stories, adventure stories and stories about good or bad luck.
Narrations containing the same facts in both the native language and a foreign, respectively second language differ mainly in the chosen narrative type and their assessment structure.