Notizen und verbales Planen

M. Latif Durlanik

Notizen und verbales Planen

Diskursanalytische Untersuchungen zum Konsekutivdolmetschen Türkisch/Deutsch

2001,  Mehrsprachigkeit / Multilingualism,  Band 10,  296  Seiten,  E-Book (PDF),  22,90 €,  ISBN 978-3-8309-6089-8

zurück zur Übersicht

Anhand authentischer Sprachaufnahmen wird in diesem Band eine pragmatische Konzeption des konsekutiven translatorischen Handelns zwischen dem Deutschen und dem Türkischen vorgelegt. Das Konsekutivdolmetschen wird dabei als das reproduzierende Handeln eines Boten verstanden, der nicht als Aktant eigenen Rechts, sondern im Auftrag eines anderen spricht.

Während beim Konsekutivdolmetschen der Dolmetscher erst einen ganzen Turn rezipiert und dann für die zielsprachliche Translation einen Handlungsplan bildet, beginnt er beim Simultandolmetschen bereits während der Äußerung mit dem sprachlichen Handeln in der Zielsprache. Für die Planung beim Konsekutivdolmetschen ist also die Rolle des Gedächtnisses zentral. Notate dienen als schriftsprachliche Gedächtnisstützen. Mit diskursanalytischen Verfahren werden die sprachlichen Formen der einzelnen Notate empirisch untersucht und ihre Rolle als Wissensspeicher festgestellt. Dabei stellt sich heraus, daß Notate vorwiegend aus Symbolfeldausdrücken bestehen. Es wird unterschieden zwischen rezeptionsbezogenen (Hörerpläne) und produktionsbezogenen (Sprecherpläne) Notaten. Die Sprachenpräferenz beim Notieren hängt interessanterweise nicht allein von der jeweiligen Erstsprache der dolmetschenden Person, sondern auch von der zu transferierenden Diskursart und von Hörerplanbildung vs. Sprecherplanbildung ab.


Summary

From an examination of authentic speech recordings a pragmatic concept of the consecutive translational act for German and Turkish is presented. Consecutive interpreting is understood here to be the reproducing action of a messenger who is not speaking as an actor in his own right, but on behalf of another. Whereas the consecutive interpreter first listens to the entire turn and then forms an action plan for phrasing the words in the target language, the simultaneous interpreter starts to speak in the target language while the utterance is still being made in the first language. Memory therefore plays a central role when planning a consecutive interpretation.

Adopting the concept of the “working memory” used in psycholinguistics it will be shown that mental structures such as knowledge about communicational patterns and institutional speech acts affect retentive ability by providing macrostructures which are anchored in the collective and individual memory.

Notes are memory props in written language. Using discourse analytical procedures an empirical examination of the linguistic forms of individual notes is made to determine their role as a store for knowledge. It is seen that the notes consist mainly of symbol field expressions (Bühler 1934). Jotting things down conserves the small microplans for the then following reproduction in the target language. Conversely, when the interpreter is making the reproduction, he uses inferencing procedures in order to reconstruct the knowledge from his own notes; these inferencing procedures are oriented towards the re-creation of knowledge in the form of “action schemes”. A distinction is made between notes relating to perception (hearer plans) and those relating to production (speaker plans). It is interesting to discover that the language used to make notes is not only a question of which language is the interpreter’s first language; it also depends on the type of discourse to be transferred and whether hearer plans or speaker plans are being formed.

Using discourse analytical methods the propositional cores of the reproduction are marked in the transcription and related back to the notes. The reproduction in the target language shows which propositional elements are recalled from the notes and which from the working memory. A comparison between the transcripts of the original language utterances and those in the target language clearly reveals that interpreters note down the rhematic elements of the original above all others and treat the thematic elements by implication.

The theoretical core of the work on verbal planning at the various stages of the action process is also represented in graphic form, showing the individual steps of the consecutive reproducing action, from the original through to the target language, as a complex action model.

Structures and strategies in the non-reproductive parts of the translational act, such as leaving out and adding words, are also examined.

Original notes made in Turkish and in German are presented and analysed. An overview of the typology applied to the notes is given. To check the theses postulated, two complete transcriptions of an interpreted academic lecture and a hearing regarding the status of an asylum seeker are documented in the appendix. For a suitable temporal representation of the original language and the reproduction in the target language the score areas (HIAT) transcription method is selected.