Maria-Anna Schulze Brüning

Handwriting at Lower Secondary Schools

Practice Research at Six Schools


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The observation in school practice that students at lower secondary schools are more and more impaired by handwriting problems, has prompted to look into the spread of this problem and its potential causes by practice research at schools. Analyses at six schools have shown that appropriately every sixth student at grades 5 and 6 – independent from his or her specific learning level – can use his or her own handwriting only to a limited extent as working medium at school. Deficient readability of the writing and a reduced writing tempo cause problems in many learning situations; this can also be seen from the students’ self-assessments. With regard to the potential reasons, this analysis does not draw primarily on impaired motor skills – as usually –, but it raises the question to what extent didactic priorities may influence the development of the handwriting. The article shows the consequences of the handwriting problem and opens at the same time new perspectives for a more differentiated approach, which might result in new lines of action.

handwriting, handwriting problems, flow of writing, writing training, practice research