Ruben KleinkorresJustine StangNele McElvany

A longitudinal analysis of reciprocal relations between students’ well-being and academic achievement


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Besides acquisition of academic competencies, well-being is an important educational goal and it has been shown that both outcomes are mutually dependent. However, until now, most studies used cross-sectional designs so that the direction of the relation is not yet fully understood. In the present study we used longitudinal data from students attending grades 5 to 9 who participated in the National Educational Panel Study (NEPS). We analyzed reciprocal relations between diff erent facets of well-being (i.e., physical, cognitive, emotional) and academic achievement. Furthermore, we examined differences between gender and type of school in these reciprocal relations. Results revealed mainly positive reciprocal relations between academic achievement and different indicators of well-being. However, multi-group models did not show diff erences between gender and type of school. Implications for future research and educational practice are discussed.

Academic achievement; Cross-lagged-panel analysis; Gender; Students’ well-being; Type of school