Issue 2/2012, 4. Volume Page 120–142
Confidence scores as measures of metacognitive monitoring in primary students? (Limited) validity in predicting academic achievement and the mediating role of self-concept
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Stankov and Lee (2008) have shown confidence scores to have unique predictive effects on achievement criteria when the corresponding test scores are controlled. These findings suggest that confidence scores might provide valid indicators of metacognitive monitoring. However, as confidence is related to self-concept (Kröner & Biermann, 2007), it is possible that the unique predictive effects disappear when self-concept is also controlled. This study examines whether average confidence regarding performance on the items of a spelling test showed incremental validity above and beyond the corresponding test scores in predicting academic achievement with and without control for verbal self-concept. N = 414 10-year-olds from 22 fourth grade classes in Bavarian primary schools participated in the research project. Students’ confidence ratings were shown to correlate with corresponding test scores. Furthermore, when test scores were controlled, average confidence scores had unique predictive effects on academic achievement. When both test scores and self-concept were controlled, however, there was no substantial unique predictive effect of confidence. Thus, the predictive power of primary students’ confidence ratings may result from their correlation with self-concept.
Metacognition; Confi dence ratings; Self-concept; Primary students