Caroline VilligerAlois NiggliChristian A. WandelerRainer WatermannSabine Kutzelmann

Multiple objectives in promoting reading

Results of a comparative intervention study at grade four


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This article evaluates the effects of three intervention programs designed to enhance the reading enjoyment and reading comprehension of 4th graders. The three interventions differed primarily in the degree of social context: (1) silent reading in school (N = 227), (2) cooperative reading in school (N = 244), and (3) cooperative reading in school with parents helping with reading homework (N = 225). The interventions lasted for 28 weeks (one school year). Teacher training and (for intervention 3 only) parental training were provided prior to the interventions. The effectiveness of the interventions was evaluated using a quasi-experimental pre/post/follow-up design (N = 940 students). Multilevel analyses showed that the three interventions were equally effective in promoting reading enjoyment and had equal, but delayed effects on word and sentence comprehension. No effects were found for text comprehension. The study demonstrates possible ways of linking cognitive and motivational promotion of reading and calls for the implementation of long-term programs.

Reading motivation, Reading comprehension, Family-school, Intervention study