Dieter Dohmen

Der Nachhilfemarkt in Deutschland

Ein Überblick über den Forschungsstand


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The article summarises the findings of a literature survey on supply, demand and the effects of private lessons (tuition classes). A core finding is, that the number of studies is limited and that nearly all of them are case studies or limited to tuition courses as one aspect among others. Roughly one out of four secondary pupils uses tuition classes, spending roughly € 1 bln per year. Private lessons (tuition classes) are more common in schools leading to higher examinations and in families from higher socio-economic background, though important differences between Eastern and Western Germany can be identified. It should be emphasized that high quality and comprehensive studies on the effects of such classes are missing, some recent studies concentrate on a small share of the market, e.g. the investigation of students from one supplier of tuition classes only. Though there are some indications that tuition classes improve school results, these indications should be treated with caution. It is of interest that roughly more than one third of students use private lessons to improve medium to good school results, what could be considered as a hint that the education system is considered to be of high (and possibly even increasing) importance for future education, training and job chances. Summarising the different aspects, one can identify some indication that tuition classes may tighten social selectivity of the education system.

tuition classes, school results, social selection