What kinds of process of negotiation are involved in teaching and studying Islam in a modern liberal context? How can the common aims attached to liberal religious education in contemporary European multicultural societies be pursued in single-faith education? This book contributes to the search for legitimate and successful forms of religious education by presenting results from a case study examining Islamic education in Finnish schools. Finnish Islamic education, in which students study their own religion with aims drawn from the liberal educational paradigm, offers a space for negotiating liberal educational values in an Islamic framework and negotiating Islam in its many contexts. The findings demonstrate the possibilities as well as challenges in educating for autonomy, tolerance and citizenship through religion. The book also gives insights into students’ negotiations on diversity and tolerance that are important for all involved in any form of multicultural education. These negotiations bring out distinct challenges in dealing with interreligious, intrareligious and cultural differences, and demonstrate how different understandings of tolerance in different ideological frameworks can cause confusion among students. The results lead to a discussion of the educational needs of Muslim students in contemporary Western societies and the competencies their teachers need.