Fachliche und sprachliche Förderung von Schülern mit Migrationsgeschichte
Beiträge des Mercator-Symposions im Rahmen des 15. AILA-Weltkongresses „Mehrsprachigkeit: Herausforderungen und Chancen“
2010, Mehrsprachigkeit / Multilingualism, Band 26, 1. Auflage, 204 pages, paperback, 24,90 €, ISBN 978-3-8309-2323-7
Anliegen der Beiträge ist es aufzuzeigen, (1) wie sprachliches und fachliches Lernen im Fachunterricht miteinander verknüpft werden können, (2) wie Lehrerinnen und Lehrer auf diese anspruchsvolle Aufgabe vorbereitet werden können und (3) wie die Erfassung des Sprachstands – unabdingbare Voraussetzung für eine möglichst effektive Sprachförderung – aussehen kann.
Three inter-related assumptions regarding best practice in second/foreign language teaching and bilingual/immersion education continue to dominate classroom instruction. These assumptions are that: (a) the target language (TL) should be used exclusively for instructional purposes without recourse to students’ first language (L1); (b) translation between L1 and TL has no place in the language classroom; and (c) within immersion and bilingual programs, the two languages should be kept rigidly separate. None of these assumptions is supported by research and they are also inconsistent with the instructional implications of current theory in the areas of cognitive psychology and applied linguistics. Based on current research and theory, Jim Cummins proposes a set of bilingual instructional strategies in his article “Language Support for Pupils from Families with Migration Backgrounds: Challenging Monolingual Instructional Assumptions” and provides concrete examples to illustrate how these strategies can be used together with monolingual strategies in a balanced and complementary way.
In her paper “Learning Academic Registers in Context: Challenges and Opportunities in Supporting Migrant Learners”, Pauline Gibbons discusses some of the challenges faced by learners of English as a second language (ESL learners), and their teachers, in the school context. ESL learners in school must simultaneously learn a new language, and learn in that language, and that includes the development of the academic and subject-specific registers through which this subject content is constructed. While this presents challenges for both students and teachers, the paper argues that, given appropriate support by ‘language-aware’ subject teachers, there are also potentially many benefits for ESL learners in learning in a mainstream classroom, rather than through unintegrated and separate language programs. Gibbons’ paper is based on an Australian context; however the issues raised have relevance to migrant education in a range of other countries.
Throughout the world, increasing numbers of students are emigrating to new communities, homes, and schools. While these students are learning a new language in a new country, they are also expected to learn grade-specific content information. Sheltered instruction is an approach for teaching students who are acquiring a second or additional language, in strategic ways that make the content information comprehensible while increasing students’ proficiency in the language of instruction. The SIOP Model was developed via the Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol (SIOP), an instrument used to rate the extent to which the eight components and thirty features of effective sheltered instruction are implemented in mainstream classrooms. The SIOP Model is the only empirically validated model of sheltered instruction that exists. Through a five-year, federally-funded research project in the United States, it was found that when teachers implement the SIOP Model to a high degree, consistently and systematically, second language learners’ academic achievement and language proficiency are increased significantly (Echevarria, Short, & Powers, 2006; Center for Applied Linguistics, 2007). The paper “Making Content Comprehensible for Language Minority Students in the Mainstream Classroom: The SIOP Model” by MaryEllen Vogt briefly describes the SIOP Model’s eight components and thirty features, the original research study and its findings, and current longitudinal research studies that are investigating the SIOP Model’s efficacy with varied populations of second language learners.
In her article “Sensitizing Science Teachers to the Needs of Second Language Learners” Tanja Tajmel points out that the linguistic diversity of students and the fact that the teaching language is the students’ second language makes language learning in all subjects increasingly important. The integration of language learning into the science classroom requires a particular development process on part of the science teacher. To increase the language awareness of science teachers a professional development process was designed and carried out within the PROMISE project. It turned out that interdisciplinary cooperative teams consisting of language and science teachers provide an adequate framework for qualitydevelopment processes like the reflection on the teachers’ professional actions and the development of linguistically supportive material for science lessons.
The article “Evaluation im Rahmen von Sprachförderprojekten” by Bettina Seipp & Bernd Ralle combines the explanation of evaluation methods and techniques with the description of the process and results of an evaluation realised in connection with the Stiftung Mercator's project “Förderunterricht”. Following a clarification of the concept of evaluation and its subsumption within the field of empirical research and evaluation research on the one hand and a short introduction to the “Dortmund enhancement project Language Competence for Pupils with a Migration Background” on the other, the method used is defined as a product self evaluation using a longitudinal experimental and control group design with the overall aim to examine the project's success. The authors proceed along the necessary steps such as wording of hypotheses; securing of the internal validity via control groups and randomization; defining dependent and independent variables; specification of the magnitude of effect(s), sample selection and finally the accordance between the intervention and its evaluation. They conclude that the execution of both the intervention and the evaluation have to be coordinated but that the evaluation should be placed into the hands of a third party disposing of the necessary resources.
The results of the PISA studies showed that the reading skills, particularly of children with migrational backgrounds are often less developed than those of their coeval fellow pupils. Since problems concerning the language usually have a negative effect on gaining knowledge in all other subjects, it is important to develop reliable tests capable of detecting general linguistic shortcomings and underdeveloped reading skills as early as possible. The c-test not only turned out to be a suitable and efficient instrument for this purpose, but also for training pupils’ reading skills. The article “Lesefertigkeiten testen und fördern” by Ruprecht S. Baur and Melanie Spettmann introduces a type of c-test especially developed for being used in school (grades five to seven). It shows how the test is put into practice and evaluated as well as how to analyse and construe the test results. Furthermore it exemplifies how c-tests (and modifications of this test format) can be used to sensitise pupils to the correct usage of language and to advance their reading skills by training certain reading strategies applied while processing c-tests. The article finally indicates that c-test variations could also be used e.g. in biology or geography classes to introduce or check technical terms.
The well-known, large-scale comparative studies (PISA; DESI and IGLU for specific skills) have shown that children whose family language is not German have considerably lower writing skills. In his paper “Sprachkenntnisse einschätzen – Schreibfertigkeiten fördern” Wilhelm Grießhaber first points out some aspects of the problems of writing in L2. Then profile analysis as a tool for determining L2 knowledge in learner texts is described. In the following, the links between the general level of L2 competence and L2 writing skills are discussed, in particular how low L2 competence is reflected in text structure and and the use of narrative means. A comparison of L1 and L2 texts based on the same picture as writing impulse shows the reduced means of expression in L2. Problematical text passages are determined and used to develop starting-points for potential remedial measures. Finally, examples of teacher comments on L2 writing are used to show their lack of precision. Teacher feedback should focus less on formal aspects and more on aspects of content and style of writing.
Antonie Hornung’s paper “Aus Texten lernen” deals with the question of how to cope with heterogeneity in multilingual higher education classrooms, especially in a non-English speaking country like Switzerland. Immigrants, under Swiss conditions, are forced to find their way with their second language, e.g. German, and they have to learn a second Swiss language, e.g. French or Italian as well as English. German academic texts often used in Higher Education textbooks are challenging. So even if the students’ everyday communication skills in their schooling language are advanced, they still encounter enormous problems in reading and understanding their textbooks in non-language subjects. The study shows that different methods of problem analysis help students to improve reading strategies. On the other hand, text comprehension can be developed by practicing writing skills using techniques like excerpting, paraphrasing, rewriting etc.
In Udo Ohm’s article “Schule und Ausbildung als semiotische Lehrzeit” education is viewed as a semiotic apprenticeship. During schooling and vocational training children and adolescents not only acquire subject knowledge but also linguistic skills and the ability to use language to regulate their own behaviour and the behaviour of others. In this context it is of specific relevance that knowledge acquisition in school subjects is inextricably linked with the acquisition of academic language abilities. Students with German as a second language require considerably more time to attain an academic register and often continue to experience academic difficulty during schooling and vocational training. The author outlines the constitutive function of academic language competence for subject learning and vocational competence. Competence in academic language is defined as the ability to perform cognitive-linguistic operations like naming, describing and explaining. This is exemplified by examining the academic language requirements apprentices need to fulfil in order to reconstruct a task from a textbook text. Suggestions are made on how teachers can support learners by scaffolding learning through focusing on language form and function.
In his paper “Inhalte nutzen, Sprache entwickeln. Der planvolle Weg zu einem sprachbewussten Fachunterricht”, Rolf Kruczinna argues that students learn subject- related registers of school more efficiently when language and content learning are integrated. Only within the context of a subject-matter discipline, will the academic register be adequately acquired. Special focus is on the teaching of key words (technical terminology) and reading strategies, and some examples of classroom activities are given.
Zusammenfassend lässt sich feststellen, dass es den Herausgebern [...] gelungen ist, die gegenwärtige Situation im DaZ-Bereich sowie die entsprechenden Problemstellungen in den Fokus der Diskussion zu stellen und somit auf die Dringlichkeit der Entwicklung neuer Konzepte hinzuweisen, was sich hoffentlich auf die Weiterentwicklung positiv auswirken wird.
Rainer E. Wicke in: Deutsche Lehrer im Ausland, 2. 2012.
[...] die Qualität des Bandes liegt darin, dass hier nicht nur einmal mehr betont wird, wie wichtig integrierte sprachliche und fachliche Förderung ist, sondern dass konkrete Perspektiven zur Umsetzung im Unterricht zur Diskussion gestellt werden.
Ingo Thonhauser in: Babylona, 2. 2011.
Der Band [ist] – neben seiner Relevanz für die Erstellung wissenschaftlicher Arbeiten – zu einem hilfreichen Impulsgeber für den Einsatz in der universitären Lehreraus- und -fortbildung. [...] Der Überblick zeigt, dass das Potenzial des Sammelbandes nicht nur in den interdisziplinären Perspektiven liegt, die die Beiträge auf Sprachbildung und -förderung im Fachunterricht eröffnen. Seine besondere Stärke liegt in der Anschaulichkeit, mit der wissenschaftliche Analysen und Forschungsvorgehen beschrieben werden.
Beate Lütke in: Deutsch als Fremdsprache, 4/2013